Database Creation

Questions
For a database administrator, describe the importance of database alerts

The alerts are very important to the database administrator because they help them get information regarding the events that may diversely impact the database in one way or another. They help the database administrator to respond to the issues as quickly as possible before any damage can take place (Basta & Zgola, 2011). Alerts come from all the internal errors, block corruption errors and deadlock errors that may be disastrous to the database. So the alerts help the database administrator to respond to them promptly before the effect of the error can escalate.

Describe the importance of reviewing the database logs to determine errors
At the heart of many devices that offer protection for the information technology, networks is an ability to log the events and actions so that remediation actions can be taken as appropriate (Horwath, 2012). The database logs errors to help the database administrator to review them and take any appropriate responses as per the error. It is essential for the database administrator to review the database error logs to determine the error so that he/she can take defensive measures before any real damage occurs (Murphy, 2015). Without the review of those database logs, the database administrator has little chances of knowing whether a live application has been compromised or is being attacked.

Compare the advantages of using a Database creation tool or using a script to create a database

Creating a database using a database creation tool or a script has many advantages, for instance, one can use the DBCA wizards to get direction in the selection of options offering an easy means of creation and tailoring of the database (Oracle Corporation, 2002). The database creator only supplies a minimum of input, and the tool makes decisions for them, eliminating the need to spend much time in deciding how to set parameters or how best to structure the database. The use of a tool also helps the database creator to be very specific concerning the file allocations and settings. The database creation using a script helps to decide the services required at the start.

Describe the basic database administrator responsibilities
The database administrator responsibilities revolve around three major activities: maintenance of the production database; planning, designing and making changes to the existing applications; and the management of a company’s data and the metadata (Connolly & Carolyn, 2004). The database administrator should also create policies and procedures regarding the database management, security, and the use of the database. A database administrator should also carry out general technical troubleshooting as he/she also provides consultation to the development teams (Blaha, 2001).

Describe Oracle tablespace (default tablespace, Bigfile, Smallville)

Oracle tablespace are the logical units in Oracle database that are used to store the entire database’s data. Each of those logical units/tablespaces consists of one or more data files that are physical structures that are specific to the operating system that Oracle database is running in. There are Bigfile tablespace and small file tablespace whereby the Bigfile tablespace comprises of a single datafile or a single temp file and the small file tablespace consists of several temp file of data files that can amount up to 1022 (Powell, 2007). A Bigfile tablespace comprises of a repository of if all the information in a single file whereas the small file tablespace has the same information contained in several files.

Describe the benefit of the Oracle client/server architecture

The client applications do not have to perform any data processing. Those applications only concentrate on the input requests from users or the server and then analyzing that data appropriately so that they can present it through display capabilities of the client node Luz, T. (1990).
The client/server architecture helps Oracle RDMS to exploit the multitasking as well as the shared memory facilities of the underlying operating system. Consequently, that offers the highest degree of data integrity, concurrency, and performance to the clients.
In this architecture, it is possible to optimize the terminals or client workstations for the presentation of data while the server can also be optimized to process and store data.
In the case of networked environments, the shared data can have placement on the servers instead of the workstations so that it will be easier and efficient to manage its concurrent access.

Assignment

Introduction
Brazil is classified as a developing nation due to its Human Development Index score. Brazil is a large nation located in South America. It is well endowed with various natural resources. The Human Development Index score is determined by specific criteria including education, Life expectancy, availability of technology, availability of healthcare and income. Since 2015, Brazil has experienced a high increase in its Human Development Index score. Today, it is classified as a “high” HDI nation. This means that it is in the upper quadrant that contains the upper tier of developing nations.

Question 1
Brazil has previously experienced financial problems. The financial problems emerged due to dictatorial government and corruption. Both the IMF and World Bank interfered with the aim of reducing inflation and improving exchange rates. For a long time, the government of Brazil worked closely with the two institutions in its efforts to settle the foreign debt, but the country’s debt situation only deteriorated (Remmer, 2004). Prior to obtaining any help from the IMF and World Bank, the country had to accent to its state of affairs, which involved executing the Structural Adjustment Programs. The program involved taking measures including minimization the growth in the money supply, liberalizing its foreign exchange, eliminating subsidies, minimizing government spending and removing price controls among other measures (Chossudovsky, 2003).

The IMF and World Bank have offered various economic developments. The efforts have been criticized for neglecting the needs of the poor majority and prioritizing multinational corporations and wealthy lenders in the industrialization. In Brazil, the IMF and World Bank has intervened in domestic politics by supporting one side in the heated social debate. As a result, the institutions have interfered in the most political of decisions involving the allocation of national resources (Santiso, 2001). Hence, they have undermined Brazil’s national democracy.

Brazil has had to adhere to the conditions set by the institutions so as to sustain its economy. When Brazil liberalized its foreign market, the country recorded a considerable growth in imports. This is not healthy for the country’s advancing economy (Danaher, 1994). The significance of IMF conditions could help Brazil through access to outside markets for its agricultural products. However, Brazil still faces market barriers for its products (Mosley et al., 1995). The broad market opening affected Brazil’s trade deficit and devalued its currency. Under the guise of advancing “free trade,” financial stability and market liberalization, the two institutions have forced a reduction in education, health care, and other social services thereby increasing inequality and deepening poverty.

On the other hand, IMF and World Bank have assisted Brazil stabilizing its economy and eradicating its debt crisis. Through Washington Consensus sponsored by the two institutions, Brazil implemented a fiscal policy, aimed at development programs, reducing government salaries and cutting down public sector investment.

Question 2
For Brazil, healthcare is a priority. Therefore, it is the responsibility of the state to ensure that health facilities are available and funded. Healthcare is a constitutional right in Brazil. The Health Ministry carries out national health policy while both the government and private sector are responsible for the provision of healthcare. The effects of a healthy population on the economy are clear. First, a nation with a healthy population finds it attain sustained growth. The provision of primary healthcare enables prevention of diseases for the benefit of the economy (Santiso, 2001).

Secondly, the healthcare performance is linked to economic prosperity. A healthy population can achieve better productivity. Thirdly, a healthy population has a higher life expectancy. This is necessary for economic development. Investment in healthcare is important for economic growth given that healthy workforce is more delivers consistent production. The fourth is that a healthy population reduces the burden of illnesses and costs associated with health issues. This benefits the rapid economic growth. In order to achieve these, the Brazilian government provides a universal healthcare system that allows citizens to afford private healthcare. The system is non-exclusive and accommodates everyone, including visitors (Falleti, 2010). The problem with its health care system is that a substantial amount of spending on healthcare is private.

Question 3
Brazil has faced a number of difficulties in its healthcare financing. This has been linked with low investment from the government. Despite the situation, the country does depend much on foreign aid to support the provision of healthcare to its citizens. Foreign aid is largely used for servicing its debts. The British government is a key supporter of Brazil. The country has made a substantial step towards the reduction of HIV/AIDS and has surpassed the expectations of the World Bank Brazil has emerged as a leader in the exchange of expertise and resources among developing countries. Brazil’s portfolio of domestically developed interventions, including the public production of ARVs and CCTs has positioned the country’s aid’s regime to capitalize on improving the national balance sheet. In 2015, Brazil enacted new legislation requiring international private investors to purchase and operate healthcare facilities in the nation. Investment in healthcare by foreigners has become desirable due to a reduction in value of domestic currency.

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