Assignment

Introduction
Brazil is classified as a developing nation due to its Human Development Index score. Brazil is a large nation located in South America. It is well endowed with various natural resources. The Human Development Index score is determined by specific criteria including education, Life expectancy, availability of technology, availability of healthcare and income. Since 2015, Brazil has experienced a high increase in its Human Development Index score. Today, it is classified as a “high” HDI nation. This means that it is in the upper quadrant that contains the upper tier of developing nations.

Question 1
Brazil has previously experienced financial problems. The financial problems emerged due to dictatorial government and corruption. Both the IMF and World Bank interfered with the aim of reducing inflation and improving exchange rates. For a long time, the government of Brazil worked closely with the two institutions in its efforts to settle the foreign debt, but the country’s debt situation only deteriorated (Remmer, 2004). Prior to obtaining any help from the IMF and World Bank, the country had to accent to its state of affairs, which involved executing the Structural Adjustment Programs. The program involved taking measures including minimization the growth in the money supply, liberalizing its foreign exchange, eliminating subsidies, minimizing government spending and removing price controls among other measures (Chossudovsky, 2003).

The IMF and World Bank have offered various economic developments. The efforts have been criticized for neglecting the needs of the poor majority and prioritizing multinational corporations and wealthy lenders in the industrialization. In Brazil, the IMF and World Bank has intervened in domestic politics by supporting one side in the heated social debate. As a result, the institutions have interfered in the most political of decisions involving the allocation of national resources (Santiso, 2001). Hence, they have undermined Brazil’s national democracy.

Brazil has had to adhere to the conditions set by the institutions so as to sustain its economy. When Brazil liberalized its foreign market, the country recorded a considerable growth in imports. This is not healthy for the country’s advancing economy (Danaher, 1994). The significance of IMF conditions could help Brazil through access to outside markets for its agricultural products. However, Brazil still faces market barriers for its products (Mosley et al., 1995). The broad market opening affected Brazil’s trade deficit and devalued its currency. Under the guise of advancing “free trade,” financial stability and market liberalization, the two institutions have forced a reduction in education, health care, and other social services thereby increasing inequality and deepening poverty.

On the other hand, IMF and World Bank have assisted Brazil stabilizing its economy and eradicating its debt crisis. Through Washington Consensus sponsored by the two institutions, Brazil implemented a fiscal policy, aimed at development programs, reducing government salaries and cutting down public sector investment.

Question 2
For Brazil, healthcare is a priority. Therefore, it is the responsibility of the state to ensure that health facilities are available and funded. Healthcare is a constitutional right in Brazil. The Health Ministry carries out national health policy while both the government and private sector are responsible for the provision of healthcare. The effects of a healthy population on the economy are clear. First, a nation with a healthy population finds it attain sustained growth. The provision of primary healthcare enables prevention of diseases for the benefit of the economy (Santiso, 2001).

Secondly, the healthcare performance is linked to economic prosperity. A healthy population can achieve better productivity. Thirdly, a healthy population has a higher life expectancy. This is necessary for economic development. Investment in healthcare is important for economic growth given that healthy workforce is more delivers consistent production. The fourth is that a healthy population reduces the burden of illnesses and costs associated with health issues. This benefits the rapid economic growth. In order to achieve these, the Brazilian government provides a universal healthcare system that allows citizens to afford private healthcare. The system is non-exclusive and accommodates everyone, including visitors (Falleti, 2010). The problem with its health care system is that a substantial amount of spending on healthcare is private.

Question 3
Brazil has faced a number of difficulties in its healthcare financing. This has been linked with low investment from the government. Despite the situation, the country does depend much on foreign aid to support the provision of healthcare to its citizens. Foreign aid is largely used for servicing its debts. The British government is a key supporter of Brazil. The country has made a substantial step towards the reduction of HIV/AIDS and has surpassed the expectations of the World Bank Brazil has emerged as a leader in the exchange of expertise and resources among developing countries. Brazil’s portfolio of domestically developed interventions, including the public production of ARVs and CCTs has positioned the country’s aid’s regime to capitalize on improving the national balance sheet. In 2015, Brazil enacted new legislation requiring international private investors to purchase and operate healthcare facilities in the nation. Investment in healthcare by foreigners has become desirable due to a reduction in value of domestic currency.

The Best Route to French Proficiency: Private Lessons vs. Group Classes

Learning a new language is something that almost all of us have considered at some point in life. Getting started with it is an enriching and stimulating journey with many challenges ahead. French is one of the most popular choices due to its widespread usage. When starting this adventure, one of the very first decisions to consider is whether to do it on a private basis or in a group class. Both approaches come with its own set of advantages and disadvantages. Therefore before making a decision it is important to understand them well.

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As obvious as it may sound, private lessons offer a personalized attention during your learning process. This is very important because it will enable you to learn at your own pace, meaning you will not get lost in class if you are a slow learner and you will be able to progress much faster if you are a quick learner. Moreover, each individual has different skills and whilst some people might have difficulties understanding grammar, others may struggle with listening or speaking. Another obvious advantage is that you will be able to take lessons at your preferred time and frequency to match your lifestyle and learning speed expectations.

Learning at your own speed is essential to assimilate the contents and learning how to use them. Very often students go through some content only to observe after that they are incapable to use it in context when the time comes. Additionally students will be able to put more focus on certain topics that are more relevant for them live business or travel.

One final very important advantage is your capacity to engage in more meaningful conversations with your teacher. This interaction will become crucial to develop your conversational fluency. The most common problem in group classes is that students will not get many chances to practice real conversations with a native speaker, which at the end of the day is one of the main objectives of learning a foreign language.

Good for socializing: Group Classes

The main advantage of group classes is that students will get the chance to socialize with other people. This is especially useful for students taking the learning process as a chill relaxing hobby regardless of the outcome. Learning with others can be fun if your goal is to slowly learn the language as a long term process rather than a short one.

Group classes will also cost less, so for students on a tight budget often the only choice is going for group lessons. It can be a very good value for money if you consider the whole pack of learning a new skill plus socializing. It is very important though to have a good instructor following a well-structured curriculum.

Another difference is the systematic approach to learning. Such classes follow a curriculum which cannot be adapted the student needs giving less flexibility but a clear structure at the same time. Some students find the sense of progression going through different levels satisfying and something to be proud of.

Factors to consider

When deciding between private lessons and big group classes for learning French students should consider the following:

Learning goals: Are you looking to become fluent within a specific time-frame? Do you have specific immediate goals like a work trip or a holiday? Private lessons will definitely be a better choice for long term fluency.
Learning style: Do you prefer big group social interactions? Or do you thrive more in one on one sessions? Your personal style should be considered.
Budget: What is your current financial situation? Private lessons provide a more personalized attention but the cost will be higher.
Time constraints: Do you have a busy schedule? Or your timing is flexible?
Motivation: Which setting do you think can keep you personally more motivated?
Availability of resources: Take into consideration the resources provided in both set ups so that you can also do self-learning when you are not with the instructor.
Finding the Right Balance
In reality you don’t have to settle for one approach. If you want to quick start your learning process you could go with private lessons first and later on switch to group classes. If your top priority is socializing you could first go for group classes and later switch to private learning. Some people that consider themselves slow learners might opt for a group + private lesson approach which also works well.

Ultimately the choice between one or another comes down to personal preferences, goals and resources. It is essential to stay committed to the learning process if you really want to learn the language so you should find whatever keeps you engaged and motivated.
Learning French is a motivating activity and if you know yourself well and what usually works best for you, definitely you will achieve your objectives. The French language will open you a new world of opportunities. The most important thing is to push your boundaries and enjoy the journey, bonne chance!

Database Creation

Questions
For a database administrator, describe the importance of database alerts

The alerts are very important to the database administrator because they help them get information regarding the events that may diversely impact the database in one way or another. They help the database administrator to respond to the issues as quickly as possible before any damage can take place (Basta & Zgola, 2011). Alerts come from all the internal errors, block corruption errors and deadlock errors that may be disastrous to the database. So the alerts help the database administrator to respond to them promptly before the effect of the error can escalate.

Describe the importance of reviewing the database logs to determine errors
At the heart of many devices that offer protection for the information technology, networks is an ability to log the events and actions so that remediation actions can be taken as appropriate (Horwath, 2012). The database logs errors to help the database administrator to review them and take any appropriate responses as per the error. It is essential for the database administrator to review the database error logs to determine the error so that he/she can take defensive measures before any real damage occurs (Murphy, 2015). Without the review of those database logs, the database administrator has little chances of knowing whether a live application has been compromised or is being attacked.

Compare the advantages of using a Database creation tool or using a script to create a database

Creating a database using a database creation tool or a script has many advantages, for instance, one can use the DBCA wizards to get direction in the selection of options offering an easy means of creation and tailoring of the database (Oracle Corporation, 2002). The database creator only supplies a minimum of input, and the tool makes decisions for them, eliminating the need to spend much time in deciding how to set parameters or how best to structure the database. The use of a tool also helps the database creator to be very specific concerning the file allocations and settings. The database creation using a script helps to decide the services required at the start.

Describe the basic database administrator responsibilities
The database administrator responsibilities revolve around three major activities: maintenance of the production database; planning, designing and making changes to the existing applications; and the management of a company’s data and the metadata (Connolly & Carolyn, 2004). The database administrator should also create policies and procedures regarding the database management, security, and the use of the database. A database administrator should also carry out general technical troubleshooting as he/she also provides consultation to the development teams (Blaha, 2001).

Describe Oracle tablespace (default tablespace, Bigfile, Smallville)

Oracle tablespace are the logical units in Oracle database that are used to store the entire database’s data. Each of those logical units/tablespaces consists of one or more data files that are physical structures that are specific to the operating system that Oracle database is running in. There are Bigfile tablespace and small file tablespace whereby the Bigfile tablespace comprises of a single datafile or a single temp file and the small file tablespace consists of several temp file of data files that can amount up to 1022 (Powell, 2007). A Bigfile tablespace comprises of a repository of if all the information in a single file whereas the small file tablespace has the same information contained in several files.

Describe the benefit of the Oracle client/server architecture

The client applications do not have to perform any data processing. Those applications only concentrate on the input requests from users or the server and then analyzing that data appropriately so that they can present it through display capabilities of the client node Luz, T. (1990).
The client/server architecture helps Oracle RDMS to exploit the multitasking as well as the shared memory facilities of the underlying operating system. Consequently, that offers the highest degree of data integrity, concurrency, and performance to the clients.
In this architecture, it is possible to optimize the terminals or client workstations for the presentation of data while the server can also be optimized to process and store data.
In the case of networked environments, the shared data can have placement on the servers instead of the workstations so that it will be easier and efficient to manage its concurrent access.